Endometrial polyps are considered areas of focal proliferation of the endometrial mucosa. They consist of fibrous stroma and endometrial glands that are arranged around a vascular axis. They represent one of the most frequent endometrial pathologies and can lead to irregular menstrual bleeding and infertility.
The prevalence in the general population is 24 % being even greater in postmenopausal women.
The etiology and pathogenesis of endometrial polyps has been debated for years. There are several theories that try to explain their etiology. The studies seem to conclude that their appearance due to a proliferative process associated with hormonal and inflammatory factors at the level of the endometrium.
There are multiple risk factors for the development of endometrial polyps such as age, BLC-2 protein, obesity, and estrogen treatment.